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Detailed entries for one subject from the INDEX TO HOW TO DO IT INFORMATION.
Click on a see also (sa) or tracing (xx) to view detailed entries about a related subject.
The entries are in alphabetical order by magazine name and then in chronological sequence.
To obtain a copy of any magazine article contact your local public library or the publisher.


CCD cameras: Digital astrophotography is here. An introduction to the use of Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) electronic imagers in amateur astronomy.
ASTRONOMY Oct 1990 (v.18#10) pg. 66

Evaluation test of two CCD cameras. A comparison of the Lynxx-PC and SBIG ST-4 digital imaging cameras designed for use with amateur telescopes.
ASTRONOMY Dec 1990 (v.18#12) pg. 67

Celestial seeing. A look at the strengths and weaknesses of the three imaging technologies available to modern amateur astronomy (film, video, and CCD).
ASTRONOMY Feb 1992 (v.20#2) pg. 68

Going digital with color. Getting started in creating digital images of celestial objects in color.
ASTRONOMY Jul 1992 (v.20#7) pg. 80

The digital darkroom. "Developing" the image. Getting the best possible results from CCD cameras requires taking the images at the telescope and combining them later on your computer.
ASTRONOMY Mar 1993 (v.21#3) pg. 72

The digital darkroom. "Printing" the image. Computers and image-processing programs are providing astrophotographers with powerful new tools for bringing the most out of astronomical images.
ASTRONOMY Apr 1993 (v.21#4) pg. 72

Photo CD revolution. A look at a technology that promises to breathe new life into astronomical slides and negatives. Part 1. Computing equipment needed, selecting material to scan, having the images converted, and using image-processing software to view the images.
ASTRONOMY Jul 1994 (v.22#7) pg. 62

Photo CD revolution. Part 2. Working in the digital darkroom. Using three powerful image enhancement routines that can improve your astroslides and negatives.
ASTRONOMY Aug 1994 (v.22#8) pg. 62

Tune up your telescope for CCD picture taking. A nine-step checklist.
ASTRONOMY Sep 1995 (v.23#9) pg. 66

Beyond the visible with CCDs. Adding a near-infrared filter to a CCD camera lets you see through nebulae and spot hidden details deep within galaxies.
ASTRONOMY Mar 1996 (v.24#3) pg. 80

Piece-by-piece astrophotography. How small CCD images can be combined into larger images using digital mosaicking techniques.
ASTRONOMY Dec 1996 (v.24#12) pg. 84

Tips on using a QuickCam video camera (a small, inexpensive electronic camera designed for video conferencing) to make astrophotos.
ASTRONOMY Sep 1999 (v.27#9) pg. 16

Capturing the sky on a CCD. Digital imaging with a CCD camera is revolutionizing the way amateur astronomers record planets and galaxies. Inside the CCD chip, five available cameras, reasons to go digital, etc.
ASTRONOMY Feb 2000 (v.28#2) pg. 72

How to record the digital sky. Run through these tricks of the CCD trade and you'll be capturing digital sky images in no time. Installing a CCD camera, how to find objects for digital imaging, lunar and planetary imaging, etc.
ASTRONOMY Mar 2000 (v.28#3) pg. 88

In cyber color. With a monochromatic CCD camera and a little ingenuity you can capture the colors of the sky. How to make a tricolor image by taking three separate filtered images and then composite them into a single color image using computer software.
ASTRONOMY Apr 2000 (v.28#4) pg. 84

Exploring the digital darkroom. The final steps in digital imaging reveal tricks of the computer processing trade.
ASTRONOMY Sep 2000 (v.28#9) pg. 76

Astro imaging workshop. Catching the light. Tips on digitally enchancing your astrophotos.
ASTRONOMY Feb 2002 (v.30#2) pg. 90

Trichannel astrophotography. Advice on film, development, scanning and digital registering.
ASTRONOMY Mar 2002 (v.30#3) pg. 78

Basic CCD techniques. A step-by-step guide to get started in CCD astrophotography.
ASTRONOMY Sep 2003 (v.31#9) pg. 100

A do-it-yourself CCD observing cart. Rolling cart holds the computer, video monitor, keyboard, and accessories required for using a CCD camera on a telescope. A single power switch facilitates use. Built from plywood.
CCD ASTRONOMY Spring 1994 (v.1#1) pg. 29

The signal to noise (S/N) connection. Understanding these limits and how to control them for better images. Part 1. An explanation of factors that control S/N in a raw CCD image.
CCD ASTRONOMY Summer 1994 (v.1#2) pg. 34
Correction CCD ASTRONOMY Fall 1994 (v.1#3) pg. 5

Tip on repairing a frost problem in a SpectraSource Lynxx PC CCD camera.
CCD ASTRONOMY Fall 1994 (v.1#3) pg. 7

Image-processing basics. Stretching. Manipulating brightness is the most fundamental image-processing technique.
CCD ASTRONOMY Fall 1994 (v.1#3) pg. 8

The signal to noise (S/N) connection. Understanding these limits and how to control them for better images. Part 2. How image processing affects the final S/N ratio.
CCD ASTRONOMY Fall 1994 (v.1#3) pg. 12

CCD on the rocks. How to use ordinary ice cubes in a plastic bag to help cool a CCD camera.
CCD ASTRONOMY Fall 1994 (v.1#3) pg. 34

Optimizing a CCD imaging system. Important facts to consider when creating the best system for your astronomical imaging needs.
CCD ASTRONOMY Winter 1995 (v.2#1) pg. 14
Added Info CCD ASTRONOMY Summer 1995 (v.2#3) pg. 4

A diffraction focuser for CCD cameras. Using diffraction spikes to focus an optical telescope that has been equipped with a CCD camera.
CCD ASTRONOMY Winter 1995 (v.2#1) pg. 33
Added Info CCD ASTRONOMY Fall 1995 (v.2#4) pg. 7

Tips on reducing electronic interference in CCD cameras.
CCD ASTRONOMY Summer 1995 (v.2#3) pg. 7

Dark frames. Removing dark current from a CCD image is a basic calibration step. A look at the process.
CCD ASTRONOMY Summer 1995 (v.2#3) pg. 12

Starting out right. Each component of a successful CCD astronomical imaging system must work in harmony with the others. Advice on selecting the camera, telescope, mounting, etc.
CCD ASTRONOMY Summer 1995 (v.2#3) pg. 18

Formula to calculate the pixel's sky coverage in arc seconds for a given CCD and telescope combination.
CCD ASTRONOMY Fall 1995 (v.2#4) pg. 7

CCD spectroscopy. How to transform a CCD into a powerful spectrograph that can reveal secrets hidden in starlight.
CCD ASTRONOMY Fall 1995 (v.2#4) pg. 8

Discovering variable stars. A straightforward method for analyzing CCD data to pick out the stars that vary.
CCD ASTRONOMY Winter 1996 (v.3#1) pg. 14

Pursuing the ideal flat field to obtain the best CCD astronomical images.
CCD ASTRONOMY Winter 1996 (v.3#1) pg. 18

Exploring the near-infrared sky by taking advantage of the extended red sensitivity of CCD cameras.
CCD ASTRONOMY Summer 1996 (v.3#3) pg. 12

What can you really get from your CCD camera? How to evaluate their performance in measuring star brightness. Part 1. Short exposures.
CCD ASTRONOMY Summer 1996 (v.3#3) pg. 17

Build a "scancam". How to turn an inexpensive hand scanner into a high-resolution CCD camera for the Sun, Moon and planets. Using a linear CCD to assemble the image of an object drifting across the focal plane of a telescope. Est. cost: $100.
CCD ASTRONOMY Summer 1996 (v.3#3) pg. 20

Tip on eliminating faux vignetting when your CCD system is "too good".,
CCD ASTRONOMY Fall 1996 (v.3#4) pg. 7

Tip on eliminating interference fringing when using light-pollution filters on CCD cameras.
CCD ASTRONOMY Fall 1996 (v.3#4) pg. 7

What can you really get from your CCD camera? How to evaluate their performance in measuring star brightness. Part 2. Long exposures.
CCD ASTRONOMY Fall 1996 (v.3#4) pg. 14
Correction CCD ASTRONOMY Winter 1997 (v.4#1) pg. 4

Special considerations for flat fielding. As the size of CCDs increase, so does the effort needed to ensure that flat fielding is done properly. Includes information on building an inexpensive light box that works by placing a uniformly illuminated target at the entrance of a telescope.
CCD ASTRONOMY Fall 1996 (v.3#4) pg. 18

Pixel size. Is bigger better? Advice on correctly matching a CCD's pixel size to a telescope's focal length for good imaging.
CCD ASTRONOMY Winter 1997 (v.4#1) pg. 6

User test of the ST-4 Star Tracker and Imaging Camera. Includes tips on attaching this CCD device to both Celestron and Meade telescopes, basic operation, interfacing to a computer, etc.
SKY & TELESCOPE Sep 1990 (v.80#3) pg. 250

How CCD imaging is reviving urban astronomy. Equipment and techniques used by one amateur astronomer.
SKY & TELESCOPE Jan 1993 (v.85#1) pg. 110

The limiting magnitude of a CCD camera. Computer program to compute the signal-to-noise ratio for a stellar image in a CCD camera.
SKY & TELESCOPE Feb 1993 (v.85#2) pg. 84

The universe in color. An introduction to the techniques required to create color images from the black-and-white CCD cameras suitable for long-exposure astronomical imaging.
SKY & TELESCOPE May 1993 (v.85#5) pg. 34

Novel procedure for checking the focus of a CCD mounted on a telescope.
SKY & TELESCOPE Oct 1993 (v.86#4) pg. 88

Image processing in astronomy. An introduction to the use of modern personal computers to process and enhance astrophotos taken with CCD cameras.
SKY & TELESCOPE Apr 1994 (v.87#4) pg. 30

Ideas from a vision-impaired amateur astronomer who uses a CCD camera, computer and a 10" reflector to continue observing deep-space objects.
SKY & TELESCOPE Jun 1995 (v.89#6) pg. 91

A do-it-yourselfer's primer for digital deep-sky imaging. Tips on building and using a CCD camera. Also includes tips on building a simple backyard observatory with a slide-off roof.
SKY & TELESCOPE May 1997 (v.93#5) pg. 40

Of pixel size and focal reducers. How to match a telescope, focal reducer, and CCD camera to achieve wide-field imaging ability.
SKY & TELESCOPE Jun 1997 (v.93#6) pg. 38

Digitally enhance your astrophotos. Advice on equipment and techniques for improving your conventional photos.
SKY & TELESCOPE Jul 1997 (v.94#1) pg. 112

A CCD camera buzzword primer.
SKY & TELESCOPE Aug 1997 (v.94#2) pg. 109

CCDs, small scopes, and the urban amateur. Tips on using modern technology to improve the seeing under light-polluted skies.
SKY & TELESCOPE Feb 1998 (v.95#2) pg. 109

A computer program (written in BASIC) calculates the limiting magnitudes for CCDs using known or tabulated quantities. This program enables you to select appropriate exposure times, optimize filters, and calculate the signal-to-noise ratio for given images.
SKY & TELESCOPE May 1998 (v.95#5) pg. 117

QuickCam astronomy. How to adapt an inexpensive video/still camera (designed for use with personal computers) to explore CCD imaging of the moon and brighter planets. Est. cost: $60.
SKY & TELESCOPE Jun 1998 (v.95#6) pg. 120

Sharper images through video. A novel video technique gives observers a chance to study astronomical phenomena at exceptionally high time and spatial resolutions. All this method requires is a telescope with excellent optics, some off-the-shelf video and computer equipment, and patience.
SKY & TELESCOPE Aug 1998 (v.96#2) pg. 48

Astrophotography with a twist. Using digital image processing techniques to combine multiple negatives of the same celestial object to reveal greater detail. A general look at the equipment, film, and computer software.
SKY & TELESCOPE Nov 1998 (v.96#5) pg. 130

True-color CCD imaging. Amateurs develop new approaches for creating CCD images of deep-sky objects.
SKY & TELESCOPE Dec 1998 (v.96#6) pg. 142

Expanding the view. Using Adobe Photoshop computer software to create impressive CCD mosaics by joining together many smaller fields of view.
SKY & TELESCOPE Jun 1999 (v.97#6) pg. 138

Improve your astrophotos by combining several film negatives (images) using digital imaging software. An introduction to the process.
SKY & TELESCOPE Oct 1999 (v.98#4) pg. 135

Thoughts on high-resolution imaging. Attention to detail will produce high-quality lunar and planetary images using a CCD camera.
SKY & TELESCOPE Jan 2000 (v.99#1) pg. 148

Combining exposures with layer masks. Reveal details across a nebula's full range of brightness using digital processing.
SKY & TELESCOPE Jan 2001 (v.101#1) pg. 152

High-resolution composite color imaging with films. Using a pair of color and black-and-white photographs, this digital-processing technique can produce crisp images in vivid color.
SKY & TELESCOPE Jul 2001 (v.102#1) pg. 127

Color CCD imaging with luminance layering. This technique combines the sharpness and contrast of high-resolution black-and-white images with color information from a low-resolution image.
SKY & TELESCOPE Jul 2001 (v.102#1) pg. 133

Astro imaging with digital cameras. How to take decent astronomical images through a telescope.
SKY & TELESCOPE Aug 2001 (v.102#2) pg. 128

Fix vignetting in astrophotos using digital imaging software.
SKY & TELESCOPE Sep 2001 (v.102#3) pg. 116

Imaging the sky from the suburbs. How to use CCD technology to make astro photos from a light-polluted location.
SKY & TELESCOPE Nov 2001 (v.102#5) pg. 132

Wide-field imaging with CCD cameras. A quick and easy way to capture large sections of the sky digitally using ordinary 35mm camera lenses.
SKY & TELESCOPE Feb 2002 (v.103#2) pg. 117

Improving astrophotos using the "curves" command found in Photoshop graphic software.
SKY & TELESCOPE Apr 2002 (v.103#4) pg. 114

Focusing a CCD camera, Understanding the fundamentals.
SKY & TELESCOPE Sep 2002 (v.104#3) pg. 112

Deep-sky imaging with digital cameras.
SKY & TELESCOPE Oct 2002 (v.104#4) pg. 113

CCD imaging with hydrogen-alpha filters. A method to obtain stunning high-resolution images of deep-sky objects.
SKY & TELESCOPE Jan 2003 (v.105#1) pg. 127

Scanning deep-sky astrophotos. Digitizing your astro negatives or slides is the crucial first step in image processing. How to do it right.
SKY & TELESCOPE Feb 2003 (v.105#2) pg. 128

Getting star and nebula colors right in CCD imaging.
SKY & TELESCOPE Jul 2003 (v.106#1) pg. 128

Creating highly detailed, wide-field, colored mosaics of deep-sky objects from CCD images using "Photoshop" software.
SKY & TELESCOPE Aug 2003 (v.106#2) pg. 130

How to build a basic CCD camera which incorporates the Texas Instruments TC211 image sensor.
TELESCOPE MAKING #46 Winter 1991-92 pg. 8