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Detailed entries for one subject from the INDEX TO HOW TO DO IT INFORMATION.
Click on a see also (sa) or tracing (xx) to view detailed entries about a related subject.
The entries are in alphabetical order by magazine name and then in chronological sequence.
To obtain a copy of any magazine article contact your local public library or the publisher.


How to determine the guide number of an older flash unit by making a series of exposures at various apertures, then making a proof sheet and selecting the best negative.
CAMERA 35 Nov 1973 (v.17#8) pg. 24

Build a smart box. A timer-controlled multiple-outlet electrical box for charging camera flashguns and other electrical equipment. Est. cost: $30.
CAMERA 35 Jun 1976 (v.20#4) pg. 6

How to test your electronic flash for best results when shooting color photos. Includes tips on selection of the best flash unit for your kind of photography.
CAMERA 35 Feb 1979 (v.24#2) pg. 16

Tips on storing batteries, film, and strobes in the freezer to prolongue their life.
CAMERA 35 Jan 1980 (v.25#1) pg. 18

Monopacks, the new trend in electronic studio flash. What is available and tips on their use.
CAMERA 35 Jun 1980 (v.25#6) pg. 61

The revolution in portable speedlight units.
CAMERA 35 Sep 1980 (v.25#9) pg. 60

Experimenting with electronic flash circuits.
COMPUTERS & ELECTRONICS May 1983 (v.21#5) pg. 90
Correction COMPUTERS & ELECTRONICS Oct 1983 (v.21#10) pg. 106

Choosing flash or continuous light. A comparision of the merits and handling characteristics of both lighting systems. Part 1. Studio and location lighting.

Choosing flash or continuous light. Part 2. Multiple light sources and slide duplicating.

Fill flash. Bringing back colors with strobe light. An explanation of some of the most important flash photography fundamentals.

Extending electronic flash. Techniques to improve flash use and create special effects. Part 1. Dual exposure effects, rear-curtain flash, wide aperture and long range flash, fast films, complementary filters, colored/filtered flash, and multiple pops/painting.

Extending electronic flash. Part 2. Bare-bulb flash, light distance, direct flash, flashmeters, polarized flash, and infrared flash.

Extending electronic flash. Part 3. Stroboscopic effects, macro flash, bounce flash, fill flash, and dedicated cameras and flash.

The Zen system. The magic of flash. Using flash in black-and-white photography.
DARKROOM PHOTOGRAPHY Aug 1990 (v.12#8) pg. 42

Super strobe light for $45.
ELECTRONICS ILLUSTRATED May 1963 (v.6#3) pg. 58

Super speed strobe light (1/10,000-second flash).
ELECTRONICS ILLUSTRATED Mar 1966 (v.9#2) pg. 62

Speed up a photo strobe unit from 1/1000-second to 1/5000-second by adding a capacitor to the circuit.
ELECTRONICS WORLD Mar 1969 (v.81#3) pg. 47

Lightweight electronic flash features fast recycling time (under 3 seconds) and SCR triggering to protect camera contacts. Produces 58 watt-seconds input to flash tube with a 300-volt battery.
ELECTRONICS WORLD Apr 1971 (v.85#4) pg. 68

Super strobe. May be triggered by sound, light, or pulse.
HANDS-ON ELECTRONICS Mar 1987 (v.4#3) pg. 75
Added Info HANDS-ON ELECTRONICS Sep 1987 (v.4#9) pg. 6

Lighting in a suitcase. Part 3. Working with bounce flash.
INDUSTRIAL PHOTOGRAPHY Apr 1972 (v.21#4) pg. 24

Lighting in a suitcase. Part 4. Strobe lighting.
INDUSTRIAL PHOTOGRAPHY May 1972 (v.21#5) pg. 24

Understnding the meaning of electronic flash terms: ECPS, BCPS, watt-seconds and guide numbers.
INDUSTRIAL PHOTOGRAPHY Nov 1972 (v.21#11) pg. 18

Wide-field flashgun is used with extreme wide-angle lenses. Three old flashguns are combined to make one gun with three heads. The flash will cover an 18mm lens on a 35mm camera up to a 65mm lens on a 4x5 camera. Est. cost: $15.
INDUSTRIAL PHOTOGRAPHY Nov 1978 (v.27#11) pg. 40

How to modify a photoflash unit that uses expensive 450 volt batteries so that it uses AC current. Estimated cost: $16. New power unit will recycle in 3 to 10 seconds.
INDUSTRIAL PHOTOGRAPHY Jan 1980 (v.29#1) pg. 16

Fill flash formulas. A graphical approach to fill-flash reveals (1) the correct flash-to-subject distance for a selected power ratio or (2) the correct power ratio setting.
INDUSTRIAL PHOTOGRAPHY Apr 1983 (v.32#4) pg. 38

A place in the sun. Advantages of using manual flash outside the studio, so that full power can be delivered to the scene.
INDUSTRIAL PHOTOGRAPHY Mar 1988 (v.37#3) pg. 13

Fine points of electronic flash. Understanding how studio strobes differ from shoe-mounted amateur strobes.
INDUSTRIAL PHOTOGRAPHY Sep 1988 (v.37#9) pg. 14

Lighting for studio and location. Part 1. Monolights.
INDUSTRIAL PHOTOGRAPHY Mar 1990 (v.39#3) pg. 44

Manufacturers' output-rating terminology for studio strobes are explained.
INDUSTRIAL PHOTOGRAPHY Apr 1990 (v.39#4) pg. 12

Lighting for studio and location. Part 2. Power-pack systems.
INDUSTRIAL PHOTOGRAPHY Apr 1990 (v.39#4) pg. 16

Lighting for studio and location. Part 3. Battery-powered flash units.
INDUSTRIAL PHOTOGRAPHY Jul 1990 (v.39#7) pg. 19

Lessons in light. Excerpts from the Sinar Bron electronic flash workshop looks at color temperature and electronic flash duration.
INDUSTRIAL PHOTOGRAPHY Mar 1991 (v.40#3) pg. 32

Tips on utilizing the automatic fill-flash lighting feature (in outdoor daylight photography) that is available on many modern cameras.
INDUSTRIAL PHOTOGRAPHY Mar 1992 (v.41#3) pg. 20

The basics of using flash to take pictures of people.
MECHANIX ILLUSTRATED #570 Nov 1975 (v.71) pg. 104

Inexpensive cardboard converter slips over an on-camera flash to bounce the light.
MECHANIX ILLUSTRATED #611 Apr 1979 (v.75) pg. 53

How to use a flash outdoors to fill in shadows.
MECHANIX ILLUSTRATED #615 Aug 1979 (v.75) pg. 78

Electronic circuit to flash a Zenon flash tube.
MODERN ELECTRONICS [1] Jun 1978 (v.1#4) pg. 15

Xenon flashtubes. How they work and typical circuits and applications.
MODERN ELECTRONICS [2] Jul 1988 (v.5#7) pg. 52

Xenon flashtube circuits, both single- and repetitive-flash designs.
MODERN ELECTRONICS [2] Aug 1988 (v.5#8) pg. 50

Triple-head photoflash system gives the amateur the advantages of multiple-source studio lighting. Instructions for building both a 300-watt-second and a 100-watt-second system.
MODERN ELECTRONICS [2] Mar 1991 (v.8#3) pg. 47
Correction COMPUTERCRAFT May 1991 (v.1#2) pg. 7

Guide numbers for direct flash. When and why they don't work and how to get good flash exposures anyway.
MODERN PHOTOGRAPHY Sep 1966 (v.30#9) pg. 40

Tips on using umbrella bounce strobe lighting.
MODERN PHOTOGRAPHY May 1968 (v.32#5) pg. 26

Short course on basic lighting for the view camera photographer. Part 2. Flashbulbs, electronic flash and tungsten lighting.
MODERN PHOTOGRAPHY Nov 1968 (v.32#11) pg. 56

Twenty-five questions and answers about strobe lights.
MODERN PHOTOGRAPHY Mar 1969 (v.33#3) pg. 80

Studio electronic flash unit uses a standard strobe, cardboard box, aluminum foil and tracing paper.
MODERN PHOTOGRAPHY Jun 1969 (v.33#6) pg. 144

Maintenance tips for flash guns.
MODERN PHOTOGRAPHY Jun 1971 (v.35#6) pg. 40

Couple an electronic flash gun with a telephoto lens to get flash pictures up to 85 or more feet away.
MODERN PHOTOGRAPHY Aug 1971 (v.35#8) pg. 78

Tips on preventing overexposure when using automatic flash.
MODERN PHOTOGRAPHY May 1972 (v.36#5) pg. 36

The right approach to bounce flash requires a basic understanding of the character of light and of your reflecting surface.
MODERN PHOTOGRAPHY Jul 1972 (v.36#7) pg. 29

The importance of reforming electrolytic capacitors in your electronic flash units.
MODERN PHOTOGRAPHY Oct 1972 (v.36#10) pg. 66

Tips on choosing and using automatic flash units. A complete chart of what is available, auto aperture ranges, power guide numbers, etc.
MODERN PHOTOGRAPHY Oct 1973 (v.37#10) pg. 90

A 110-volt power supply to replace the four AA cells in an electronic flash unit.
MODERN PHOTOGRAPHY Jun 1974 (v.38#6) pg. 86

What are guide numbers based on, how to avoid exposure errors, and how to increase depth of illumination.
MODERN PHOTOGRAPHY Oct 1974 (v.38#10) pg. 78

How to set up automatic multi-flash units for proper balance plus comment on the pitfalls of combining different models or brands of flash and slave units.
MODERN PHOTOGRAPHY Feb 1976 (v.40#2) pg. 18

Electronic Flash. Part 1. What are guide numbers? How to calculate your own by practical test.
MODERN PHOTOGRAPHY Mar 1976 (v.40#3) pg. 39

Simple maintenance and repair tips to keep electronic flash units operating.
MODERN PHOTOGRAPHY Apr 1976 (v.40#4) pg. 140

Electronic Flash. Part 2. Other factors to consider in getting good color pictures.
MODERN PHOTOGRAPHY May 1976 (v.40#5) pg. 37

Shopping for an electronic flash unit. Part 1. What to expect in power and size.
MODERN PHOTOGRAPHY Aug 1976 (v.40#8) pg. 78

Tip on extending the range of your auto strobe.
MODERN PHOTOGRAPHY Aug 1976 (v.40#8) pg. 123

Shopping for an electronic flash unit. Part 2. Why does more light mean more bulk, weight and energy consumption?
MODERN PHOTOGRAPHY Sep 1976 (v.40#9) pg. 88

Shopping for an electronic flash. Part 3. More on bulk, plus flash tubes, reflectors and associated needs.
MODERN PHOTOGRAPHY Oct 1976 (v.40#10) pg. 69

Examples of autoflash pictures taken with flash on and off camera, direct and bounce lighting. Several different units used.
MODERN PHOTOGRAPHY Nov 1976 (v.40#11) pg. 120

Convert your present flash unit to a "bare bulb" flash by means of a white plastic funnel or coffee cup positioned over the flash unit. The plastic dissipates the light very similarily to a bare bulb unit.
MODERN PHOTOGRAPHY Feb 1977 (v.41#2) pg. 102

Which electronic auto-exposure flash unit do you need and how best can you use it? One mans guide to the best in practical automatic electronic flash.
MODERN PHOTOGRAPHY Apr 1979 (v.43#4) pg. 62

Why flash? Photos and diagrams illustrate how flash can solve lighting problems and create spectacular images.
MODERN PHOTOGRAPHY Apr 1979 (v.43#4) pg. 102

Annual directory of automatic electronic flash units includes specifications and prices.
MODERN PHOTOGRAPHY Apr 1979 (v.43#4) pg. 124

Update a dependable, but spartan, older flash unit with some do-it-yourself electronics. Add a "full discharge" readylight and a slave trigger.
MODERN PHOTOGRAPHY Jan 1980 (v.44#1) pg. 44

How to use several low-cost miniature electronic flash units to illuminate a large area, inside or out.
MODERN PHOTOGRAPHY Jan 1980 (v.44#1) pg. 115

How to take flash pictures through glass, such as an aquarium, without getting a reflection from the glass.
MODERN PHOTOGRAPHY Jun 1981 (v.45#6) pg. 113

How to read and interpret electronic flash guide numbers. How to make your own guide number/ASA conversion chart.
MODERN PHOTOGRAPHY Oct 1981 (v.45#10) pg. 60

How to use flash in existing light photographs, yet maintain a "natural" look in the finished picture.
MODERN PHOTOGRAPHY May 1982 (v.46#5) pg. 82

How to use fill-in flash to soften shadows and reveal details when taking pictures outdoors on a bright, sunny day.
MODERN PHOTOGRAPHY May 1982 (v.46#5) pg. 87

Autoflash '82. Chart describes the features of over 150 electronic flash units.
MODERN PHOTOGRAPHY May 1982 (v.46#5) pg. 88

Tips on using the variable power adjustment on newer electronic flash units.
MODERN PHOTOGRAPHY Nov 1982 (v.46#11) pg. 84

Tip on the correct way to use bounce flash.
MODERN PHOTOGRAPHY Jan 1983 (v.47#1) pg. 60

Tips on building a real strobe unit from a kit or converting an electronic flash to a strobe with a "Multi-Flash Module" accessory.
MODERN PHOTOGRAPHY Mar 1983 (v.47#3) pg. 20

Reduce the light output of small, inexpensive flash units by installing a smaller capacity capacitor. This produces a good unit for close-up, indoor candid shots, with a fast recycling time.
MODERN PHOTOGRAPHY Apr 1983 (v.47#4) pg. 26

How to avoid getting zapped when working on your flash unit circuitry. A simple gadget to discharge a flash capacitor.
MODERN PHOTOGRAPHY Aug 1983 (v.47#8) pg. 10
Correction MODERN PHOTOGRAPHY Nov 1983 (v.47#11) pg. 14

Tip: How to make any flash unit with a bounce head perform like a "bare bulb" flash unit.
MODERN PHOTOGRAPHY Sep 1983 (v.47#9) pg. 162

Why settle for on-camera "direct flash" when there are simple ways of getting better results with more coverage. Three simple ways to use on-camera flash and avoid problems.
MODERN PHOTOGRAPHY May 1984 (v.48#5) pg. 48

How to replace a broken flash foot on your camera-mounted flash gun.
MODERN PHOTOGRAPHY Jul 1984 (v.48#7) pg. 8

How to integrate a Polaroid SX-70 camera to work with a studio flash or other generic flash outfit.
MODERN PHOTOGRAPHY Aug 1984 (v.48#8) pg. 8

When flash makes the picture. How to add impact to ordinary scenes with professional flash techniques.
MODERN PHOTOGRAPHY Aug 1984 (v.48#8) pg. 50

Tip: How to mark a lens to show the correct F/stop to use for each distance when using a manual flash unit.
MODERN PHOTOGRAPHY Sep 1984 (v.48#9) pg. 80

How to get bright, sharp and colorful flower pictures without that harsh, direct-flash look. Tips on taking flash pictures of flowers.
MODERN PHOTOGRAPHY Oct 1984 (v.48#10) pg. 68

Tips on using supplimentary flash with a point-and-shoot camera.
MODERN PHOTOGRAPHY Jun 1985 (v.49#6) pg. 108

Tip: Convert an auto flash into a manual flash by covering the sensor with black tape.
MODERN PHOTOGRAPHY Sep 1985 (v.49#9) pg. 52

Make a travel case for your flash equipment from a discarded attache case.
MODERN PHOTOGRAPHY Sep 1985 (v.49#9) pg. 52

Strobe safety. Practical tips for using today's powerful flash equipment.
MODERN PHOTOGRAPHY Jan 1986 (v.50#1) pg. 32
Added Info MODERN PHOTOGRAPHY Mar 1986 (v.50#3) pg. 26

Cure "red eye" from a built-in camera flash by adding a separate flash on a bracket and slave-triggering it using the built-in flash.
MODERN PHOTOGRAPHY Apr 1986 (v.50#4) pg. 49

Liven up color photos of flowers by filtering your flash with orange, red, or yellow filters.
MODERN PHOTOGRAPHY Jun 1986 (v.50#6) pg. 16

Tip: Use a neutral density filter to trick your old auto flash into giving you the light output you need.
MODERN PHOTOGRAPHY Jul 1986 (v.50#7) pg. 51

Tip: Piece of film keeps flash unit from shorting out to an old-style all-metal flash shoe.
MODERN PHOTOGRAPHY Jul 1986 (v.50#7) pg. 51

Use two small flash units rubberbanded together to provide both bounce and fill light simultaneously.
MODERN PHOTOGRAPHY Aug 1986 (v.50#8) pg. 47

Test your flash unit completely with one 36-exposure roll of Kodachrome 25.
MODERN PHOTOGRAPHY Oct 1986 (v.50#10) pg. 22

Tip on keeping your flash head from slipping to the wide-angle position.
MODERN PHOTOGRAPHY Oct 1986 (v.50#10) pg. 49

Build a "switch lock" for your flash to keep from inadvertently draining the batteries.
MODERN PHOTOGRAPHY Mar 1987 (v.51#3) pg. 53

Selecting a flash system for home or commercial studio. Advice on determining how much flash power you really need. Tips on selecting the correct reflector for a given situation.
MODERN PHOTOGRAPHY Oct 1987 (v.51#10) pg. 42

Shopping for an electronic flash. Let your specific photographic needs determine your choice. Some tips.
MODERN PHOTOGRAPHY Feb 1988 (v.52#2) pg. 52
Correction MODERN PHOTOGRAPHY Mar 1988 (v.52#3) pg. 36

Fine tune your technique for simply, high quality, one-flash lighting.
MODERN PHOTOGRAPHY Feb 1988 (v.52#2) pg. 74

Make an inexpensive snoot attachment for your electronic flash.
MODERN PHOTOGRAPHY Mar 1988 (v.52#3) pg. 26

Some tips on avoiding overexposure when using automatic, light-measuring flash units.
PHOTO METHODS FOR INDUSTRY Jan 1972 (v.15#1) pg. 24

Some guidance on bounce flash exposures and how they defy the inverse square below.
PHOTO METHODS FOR INDUSTRY Aug 1972 (v.15#8) pg. 35

Illustrations show placement of main flashgun and extensions for a number of typical industrial scenes.
PHOTO METHODS FOR INDUSTRY Aug 1972 (v.15#8) pg. 43

A simple homemade clip, with a neutral density filter, fits over the electric eye of small automatic flash units. This allows you to vary the f-stop value of the less expensive, non-adjustable flash units.
PHOTO METHODS FOR INDUSTRY Mar 1973 (v.16#3) pg. 10

A basic discussion of the meaning of reflector angle of coverage, speed of flash, recharge time and guide numbers as they apply to electronic flash units.
PHOTO METHODS FOR INDUSTRY Nov 1973 (v.16#11) pg. 14

A brief look at the basics of auto-exposure fill-flash, adapting a sensor-eye system for fill flash, and a rough guide for semi-auto fill flash.
PHOTO TECHNIQUES Jul-Aug 1999 (v.20#4) pg. 18

Tip: How to determine the guide number of a flash unit of unknown output.
PHOTOGRAPHIC Mar 1978 (v.6#11) pg. 124

Studio flash systems. How they work and what is available.
PHOTOGRAPHIC Oct 1978 (v.7#6) pg. 89

Basic 35mm single-lens reflex photography. Part 3. Basic electronic flash techniques.
PHOTOGRAPHIC Jun 1979 (v.8#2) pg. 57

Tip: Use a white card to direct some light straight forward when using bounce flash. This will prevent dark circles under peoples eyes.
PHOTOGRAPHIC Sep 1979 (v.8#5) pg. 99

How to convert a portable flash unit into a studio setup, complete with barn doors on the flash, a modeling light and a reflector umbrella.
PHOTOGRAPHIC Jan 1981 (v.9#9) pg. 80

The ABCs of bounce light. The advantages and applications of flash in the studio.
PHOTOGRAPHIC Mar 1981 (v.9#11) pg. 33

Working with flash: The basics.
PHOTOGRAPHIC Apr 1981 (v.9#12) pg. 23

Creative tips for flash. Experiments with flash lighting will help you predict how a subject will be rendered. Tips on off-the-camera flash, bounce lighting, natural light + flash, flash filters and wide-angle flash.
PHOTOGRAPHIC Jun 1981 (v.10#2) pg. 18

Solve ambient/flash exposure problems by making your own light-ratio calculator from cardboard or heavyweight paper.
PHOTOGRAPHIC Oct 1981 (v.10#6) pg. 55

How to increase depth of field when taking indoor flash pictures by flashing a multiple number of times. Tips on how many times to flash to attain a given f/stop and how to bracket such exposures.
PHOTOGRAPHIC Oct 1981 (v.10#6) pg. 115

Basic one-light illustration. How to use one light source and a fill card (reflector) to illuminate small objects adequately for advertising photos. Includes plans for building a soft-box for your strobe.
PHOTOGRAPHIC Dec 1981 (v.10#8) pg. 35
Added Info PHOTOGRAPHIC Jan 1982 (v.10#9) pg. 24

A foolproof guide to predictable flash results. How to test your electronic flash unit and standardize the placement of the light based on test results.
PHOTOGRAPHIC Dec 1981 (v.10#8) pg. 96

Fifteen ways to get more out of your electronic flash unit.
PHOTOGRAPHIC Oct 1982 (v.11#6) pg. 82

Tip: Use a wide-beam flashlight to determine how flash photographs will look before you take them.
PHOTOGRAPHIC Jan 1983 (v.11#9) pg. 81

Tip: Soften the quality of your electronic flash by fitting a soft-drink cup over the head.
PHOTOGRAPHIC Mar 1983 (v.11#11) pg. 36

10 questions most asked when buying a flash.
PHOTOGRAPHIC Jun 1983 (v.12#2) pg. 31

Sunlight plus electronic flash can result in perfect exposures both indoors and out.
PHOTOGRAPHIC Aug 1983 (v.12#4) pg. 66

How to use electronic flash. A SPECIAL SECTION to help you understand some of the how-to's of this useful accessory.
PHOTOGRAPHIC Nov 1983 (v.12#7) pg. 41

SPECIAL SECTION on 35mm single-lens reflex photography. Electronic flash.
PHOTOGRAPHIC Jul 1985 (v.14#3) pg. A (38+)

Through-the-lens flash. How it works and tips on its use.
PHOTOGRAPHIC Apr 1986 (v.14#12) pg. 58

35mm SLR super course. Part 4. Electronic flash.
PHOTOGRAPHIC Jan 1987 (v.15#9) pg. A

Comp book. Produce a visually stimulating photograph by painting with flash and the use of color flash filter effects. Some tips.
PHOTOGRAPHIC May 1987 (v.16#1) pg. 72

School of photography. Lesson 5. Electronic flash.
PHOTOGRAPHIC May 1988 (v.17#1) pg. 42+

Understanding and using electronic flash. Includes setup and exposure, problems and their solutions, synchronization with available light and more.
PHOTOGRAPHIC Jul 1989 (v.18#3) pg. 44+

Special section: Electronic flash. Topics include lighting with one flash unit, setting up, exposure, accessories, etc.
PHOTOGRAPHIC Jun 1990 (v.19#2) pg. 75

Special bonus section on electronic flash selection and use.
PHOTOGRAPHIC Jul 1991 (v.20#3) pg. 71

Special section on electronic flash. Topics include principles and practice, problems, how to use it, etc.
PHOTOGRAPHIC Jul 1992 (v.21#3) pg. 47

Easy-to-use small flash system combines one camera-connected strobe and a second slaved flash (attached to a clamp with an adjustable flash shoe). Ideal for quick setup when shooting on location.
PHOTOGRAPHIC Jul 1993 (v.22#3) pg. 66

Taming the bright, harsh light of midday sun by using electronic fill-flash.
PHOTOGRAPHIC Sep 1993 (v.22#5) pg. 26

School of photography. Part 4. Lighting and flash.
PHOTOGRAPHIC Jul 1994 (v.23#3) pg. 61

Ten easy flash solutions. Using electronic flash and TTL exposure control to provide versatile lighting and special effects.
PHOTOGRAPHIC Jun 1995 (v.24#2) pg. 20

Photographic's super course of photography. Lighting and flash.
PHOTOGRAPHIC Jul 1995 (v.24#3) pg. 63

Ten creative flash techniques. Some tricks of the flash-photographer's trade that you can adapt for your own work.
PHOTOGRAPHIC Jun 1996 (v.25#2) pg. 64

Back-to-basics. Introduction to lighting and flash.
PHOTOGRAPHIC Jul 1996 (v.25#3) pg. 61

How to take great photos with a fill-flash using a point-and-shoot camera.
PHOTOGRAPHIC Oct 1996 (v.25#6) pg. 30

Tips on minimizing red-eye when taking flash pictures.
PHOTOGRAPHIC May 1997 (v.26#1) pg. 43

Ten easy flash solutions (sidelighting, backlighting, mixed lighting, bounce lighting, etc.).
PHOTOGRAPHIC Jun 1997 (v.26#2) pg. 29

Ten electronic flash tips.
PHOTOGRAPHIC May 1998 (v.27#1) pg. 16

Seven great flash techniques, both on-camera and off.
PHOTOGRAPHIC Aug 1999 (v.28#4) pg. 32

Fog, smoke and haze. How to cope with them when taking flash pictures.
PHOTOMETHODS Nov 1974 (v.17#11) pg. 14

Routine maintenance and open eyes and ears will keep your electronic flash units working. Tips on troubleshooting electronic flash.
PHOTOMETHODS Feb 1976 (v.19#2) pg. 10

Understanding the mechanics of automatic flash and using its benefits to your benefit.
PHOTOMETHODS Jul 1976 (v.19#7) pg. 29

Tip: How to locate the cause of flash failure. Checking the cord, hot shoe, power supply, etc.
PHOTOMETHODS Jan 1979 (v.22#1) pg. 8

How deep is the light? Understanding "depth of illumination" when using automatic flash
PHOTOMETHODS Mar 1979 (v.22#3) pg. 6

Bare bulb flash. When and when not to use the method, plus tips on making your own bare bulb flash unit.
PHOTOMETHODS Sep 1979 (v.22#9) pg. 27

Tips on storing electronic flash units for long periods of time and restoring them to service after storage.
PHOTOMETHODS Oct 1979 (v.22#10) pg. 10

Using blue-sensitive film with xenon flash illumination. Includes battery operated circuit for a flash lamp.
PHOTOMETHODS May 1981 (v.24#5) pg. 38

Modifying the light from portable electronic flash. Some clever accessories overcome the shortcomings of conventional flash techniques.
PHOTOMETHODS Mar 1985 (v.28#3) pg. 59

Fill-in flash simplified. A flash-fill ratio table enables a photographer to choose a distance and lens and then adjust the lighting.
PHOTOMETHODS Apr 1985 (v.28#4) pg. 38

Test of the Cokin Dedicated Creative Flash system includes tips on its use.
PHOTOMETHODS Jun 1986 (v.29#6) pg. 12

Tips on determining the duration of an electronic flash.
PHOTOMETHODS Feb 1987 (v.30#2) pg. 6

Tip on using an automatic strobe for outdoor fill light.
PHOTOMETHODS Apr 1987 (v.30#4) pg. 9
Correction PHOTOMETHODS Sep 1987 (v.30#9) pg. 6

Tip on using flash with wide angle lenses.
PHOTOMETHODS Sep 1987 (v.30#9) pg. 6

User test of the Metz 60 CT-4 and tips on its use.
PHOTOMETHODS Sep 1987 (v.30#9) pg. 35

Basic information on using fill flash outdoors when taking photos in the 6-ft. to 12-ft. range.
PHOTOMETHODS Apr 1988 (v.31#4) pg. 10

Tips on using power inverters (12-volts DC to 120-volts AC) to power electronic flash units on location.
PHOTOMETHODS Sep 1988 (v.31#9) pg. 19
Added Info PHOTOMETHODS Feb 1989 (v.32#2) pg. 14

Creative electronic flash. Stroboscopic effects in rainbow colors. An easy solution to the problem of subject movement when attempting stroboscopic tracing combined with a single front flash illumination.
PHOTOMETHODS Oct 1988 (v.31#10) pg. 10

Tips on using portable gas-powered generators to power electronic flash units on location.
PHOTOMETHODS Oct 1988 (v.31#10) pg. 19

Electronic flash primer. Technical considerations of how flash equipment operates and the photographic effects they produce.
PHOTOMETHODS Jul 1989 (v.32#7) pg. 29

Understanding electronic flash characteristics and studio strobe operation.
PHOTOMETHODS Sep 1989 (v.32#9) pg. 24

Tip on using the "cumulative flash" technique to get enough light for studio exposures of non-moving objects.
PHOTOMETHODS Feb 1990 (v.33#2) pg. 44

Fill-in light also accepts AG-1 flashbulbs to double as a regular BC flashgun.
POPULAR ELECTRONICS [1] Dec 1968 (v.29#6) pg. 47

Flash tube operation and applications. Understanding and getting the most from strobes.
POPULAR ELECTRONICS [1] Jan 1973 (v.3#1) pg. 68

Comparison and evaluation of mini-strobe electronic flashguns.
POPULAR MECHANICS Dec 1969 (v.132#6) pg. 128

Tricks that improve flash pictures.
POPULAR MECHANICS Dec 1971 (v.136#6) pg. 114

Transformer unit producing 6.3 volts from 110 volts AC is the basic unit in a photo flash system where 3 or more flashbulbs can be triggered for open-flash shooting.
POPULAR MECHANICS Jul 1972 (v.138#1) pg. 14

Construction and use of repeating strobe lights. Kits from Graymark and Radio Shack cost $20 and $30.
POPULAR MECHANICS Feb 1976 (v.145#2) pg. 101

How to take good flash pictures. Some tips.
POPULAR MECHANICS Dec 1978 (v.150#6) pg. 84

Using reflectorless flash.
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY Apr 1966 (v.58#4) pg. 64

Portable electronic flash bank with a modeling lamp and four flash heads weighs 5 lbs. Use for either direct or bounce lighting. Recycles in 5 seconds. Delivers a Kodachrome II guide number of 70. Est. cost: $100.
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY Feb 1967 (v.60#2) pg. 92

Fill-in flash indoors. Techniques for using a fill-in flash.
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY Jun 1967 (v.60#6) pg. 33

Eight ways to better single-flash technique.
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY Jun 1968 (v.62#6) pg. 118

How to plan your photoflood lighting setup or photoflash needs.
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY Dec 1970 (v.67#6) pg. 82

A review of lightweight, pocket-size electronic flash units.
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY Feb 1972 (v.70#2) pg. 84

Exposure test to determine the guide number of an electronic flash with unknown light output.
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY Apr 1972 (v.70#4) pg. 20

Electronic flash, where it's at and where it's going.
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY Dec 1973 (v.73#6) pg. 95

Everyman's guide to electronic flash types.
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY Dec 1973 (v.73#6) pg. 102

Tips on shooting pictures with the new auto exposure bounce flash units.
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY Dec 1973 (v.73#6) pg. 126

Tip shows how to use a piece of paper to divert some of an electronic flash output directly into the sensor, thus fooling the flash unit into producing a flash of very short duration.
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY Dec 1973 (v.73#6) pg. 150

Sketches and photos show the wide range of effects possible by taking the flash unit off the camera top. Includes the use of white and black seamless paper backgrounds.
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY Mar 1974 (v.74#3) pg. 80

Electronic flash. What to look for when you buy.
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY Mar 1976 (v.78#3) pg. 76

How to bounce flash from auto-exposure units and get soft, pleasing results.
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY Jun 1976 (v.78#6) pg. 40

Incandescent bulbs or electronic flash, which is best for low-lighting conditions? Some tips.
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY Jun 1977 (v.80#6) pg. 16

How to exploit the many uses of a small flash and what to look for when buying one. Some tips.
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY Oct 1977 (v.81#4) pg. 24

Improve your flash lighting by using two flash units, both of them off the camera.
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY Aug 1978 (v.83#2) pg. 26

How to save your electronic-flash unit when it begins acting strange. Tips on reforming the energy storage capacitors.
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY Jan 1979 (v.84#1) pg. 49

Tip: How to determine the guide number for a given electronic-flash unit and color film by making 8 or 9 test exposures.
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY Jan 1979 (v.84#1) pg. 76

The Hattersley class for beginners. Basic electronic flash. What it is, how it works, and how to get the most from a single inexpensive unit.
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY Feb 1979 (v.84#2) pg. 92

Knowledge of secondary (reflected) light sources can help you make better auto-flash pictures.
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY Apr 1979 (v.84#4) pg. 19

How to keep flash units functioning during the heat and humidity of summer.
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY May 1979 (v.84#5) pg. 33

Learn about recycling times and your ready light to get the most light from your electronic flash unit.
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY Jul 1979 (v.85#1) pg. 48

The Hattersley class for beginners. How to get professional lighting with a single electronic-flash unit by bouncing the light off ceiling or walls.
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY Aug 1979 (v.85#2) pg. 104

How to create color with electronic flash by placing colored filters in front of the reflector.
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY Nov 1979 (v.85#5) pg. 114

Use an autoflash, homemade reflector, and common sense for best low-light pictures.
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY Mar 1980 (v.86#3) pg. 16

Use your flash to get fire-fighting pictures that have pro-quality and may even be salable.
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY Jul 1980 (v.87#1) pg. 72

A key to "available flash" photography. Description of a method for measuring bounce-flash f-stops that can be learned by any photographer whose SLR incorporates a manual-metering mode.
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY Sep 1980 (v.87#3) pg. 85

Ten reasons why your electronic flash may fail, and how to avoid trouble.
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY Oct 1980 (v.87#4) pg. 66

What you should know about choosing an automatic-exposure flash unit. Part 1.
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY Apr 1981 (v.88#4) pg. 30

What you should know about choosing an automatic-exposure flash unit. Part 2.
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY May 1981 (v.88#5) pg. 44

Tips on working with electronic flash equipment outside of the studio.
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY May 1981 (v.88#5) pg. 52

How to test your flash unit to determine guide number and aperture settings.
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY Aug 1981 (v.88#8) pg. 40

Some common causes of electronic flash failure and tips to help overcome them.
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY Sep 1981 (v.88#9) pg. 42

Some reasons why your automatic-exposure electronic flash may be overexposing or underexposing.
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY Oct 1981 (v.88#10) pg. 32

A guide to selecting and using dedicated flash.
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY Mar 1982 (v.89#3) pg. 90

Multiple flash: the easy way to great lighting.
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY Apr 1982 (v.89#4) pg. 100

Shoot motion using the "motion stroboscopics" technique developed by Bruce Curtis.
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY Sep 1983 (v.90#9) pg. 66

Using fill-in flash outdoors in sunlight to control contrast.
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY Jul 1985 (v.92#7) pg. 10

Flash is back in style. Try these exciting new ways to use flash.
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY Dec 1985 (v.92#12) pg. 47

Second sun. Add extra spark to your outdoor photographs with electronic fill flash.
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY Aug 1987 (v.94#8) pg. 42
Added Info POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY Nov 1987 (v.94#11) pg. 8

Color light with low-cost filters and a small flash.
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY Mar 1988 (v.95#3) pg. 28

Convert an old 110 flash camera into a studio fill light (hair light).
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY Sep 1988 (v.95#9) pg. 60

How to test an electronic flash for synchronization, recycling time, guide number and coverage.
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY Apr 1989 (v.96#4) pg. 56

Get more out of your point and shoot flash. Special features and add-ons give better light and more of it.
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY Apr 1989 (v.96#4) pg. 64

Dedicated flash. How to buy the right one and make it do what you want.
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY Apr 1989 (v.96#4) pg. 66

Get quality lighting from a single flash. Examples of direct, bounced and diffused flash lighting.
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY Apr 1989 (v.96#4) pg. 70
Added Info POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY Jul 1989 (v.96#7) pg. 130

Fill-in flash. Putting your flash to work with existing light.
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY Apr 1989 (v.96#4) pg. 72
Correction POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY Sep 1989 (v.96#9) pg. 126

Special effects flash. Using long exposure and multiple-image flashing to make more interesting photos.
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY Apr 1989 (v.96#4) pg. 75

Studio flash. Tips on designing a system within an amateur's budget.
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY Apr 1989 (v.96#4) pg. 78

Tip: Use angled flash to reduce reflections when photographing through a window.
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY Nov 1989 (v.96#11) pg. 44

The ubiquitous Vivitar 283 electronic-flash unit. A guide to understanding the versatility and appeal which this small amateur flash unit has for the professional photographer.
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY Feb 1990 (v.97#2) pg. 24

Shedding light on buying flash. A buyer's guide to selecting a small, medium or large electronic flash unit.
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY Feb 1990 (v.97#2) pg. 46

Studio on a shoestring. User test of the Rokunar Studio Pro Home Portrait Kit. Includes diagrams of typical lighting setups and tips on using this low-cost electronic-flash kit to produce studio-quality results.
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY Feb 1990 (v.97#2) pg. 50

How to prevent red-eye when taking flash pictures.
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY Oct 1991 (v.98#10) pg. 44

Tip on compensating for exposure when using a non-dedicated flash and a 2X lens converter.
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY Mar 1992 (v.99#3) pg. 146

Flash on camera. How to live with the light source you love to hate. Simple, straightforward techniques are described which allow you to retain all the conveniences of on-camera (or built-in) flash while still achieving pleasant, natural-looking lighting.
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY Jun 1992 (v.99#6) pg. 34

Tip on replacing the bulb in a table lamp (which is going to be included in an indoor picture) with a slaved flash unit in order to eliminate color-balance problems.
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY Jul 1992 (v.99#7) pg. 68

How to bounce electronic flash light off walls and ceilings to spread and soften it. Diagrams and photos illustrate the expected results.
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY Sep 1992 (v.99#9) pg. 55

For better indoor lighting, try small studio flash. Advice on selecting equipment, placement, metering, etc.
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY Mar 1993 (v.100#3) pg. 40

Tips on choosing a shoe-mount flash.
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY Oct 1994 (v.58#10) pg. 50

How to use fill flash (both TTL and non-TTL units).
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY Oct 1995 (v.59#10) pg. 46

Tips on overcoming the wide-angle lens flash-coverage problem.
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY Jun 1997 (v.61#6) pg. 16

Best how-to tips for flash lighting. (1) Use fill flash. (2) Choose a shoe-mount flash. (3) Get the redeye out. (4) Selecting a flash diffuser.
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY Oct 1998 (v.62#10) pg. 80, 87, 88, 94
Added Info POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY Jan 1999 (v.63#1) pg. 42

Tips on selecting and using flash heads to achieve bounce flash when taking a vertical photo.
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY Jan 1999 (v.63#1) pg. 18

How to use fill flash with your camera. Both manual fill flash and automatic fill flash methods are discussed. A related article offers fill flash ideas from 8 professional photographers.
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY Feb 1999 (v.63#2) pg. 64, 58

Tip on taking bounce flash vertical pictures by using a wall as the reflector.
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY Apr 1999 (v.63#4) pg. 18

Advice on using dedicated electronic flash units from independent (after-market) manufacturers. How to measure flash voltage, use PC connectors, etc.
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY May 1999 (v.63#5) pg. 60

Tips on when and when not to use fill flash.
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY & IMAGING Feb 2003 (v.67#2) pg. 47

Fill flash cheat sheet. How to use accessory flash units with exposure compensation to get flash that blends in naturally with ambient light.
POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY & IMAGING Sep 2003 (v.67#9) pg. 80

Repeating electronic flash gun.
POPULAR SCIENCE Oct 1964 (v.185#4) pg. 132

The secrets of using flash for better color pictures.
POPULAR SCIENCE May 1966 (v.188#5) pg. 140

A short piece of fiber-optic material, attached to the electric eye of an automatic flash, will read the correct light during a bounce light situation.
POPULAR SCIENCE Mar 1975 (v.206#3) pg. 148

How to choose an electronic flash.
POPULAR SCIENCE Dec 1979 (v.215#6) pg. 89

Power supply for a xenon flash tube.
RADIO-ELECTRONICS Nov 1989 (v.60#11) pg. 12

Mitchell's Uniflash, a 200 watt-second flash that uses a bare-bulb flashtube (no reflector) and an AC power supply.
SCIENCE & ELECTRONICS [1] Aug-Sep 1970 (v.28#4) pg. 51

Electronic flashgun features interchangeable reflectors and a recycle time of 2 or 3 seconds.
SCIENCE & ELECTRONICS [1] Oct-Nov 1970 (v.28#5) pg. 29

How electronic flash works and how to make one.
SCIENCE & ELECTRONICS [1] Oct-Nov 1970 (v.28#5) pg. 39

Convert pro flashgun to BC power.
SCIENCE & MECHANICS #213 Jan 1963 (v.34#1) pg. 96

Bringing back colors with flash. A look at the difference between fill flash and primary flash in both normal and underwater photography. Using both manual flashes and TTL metering discussed.
SHUTTERBUG #289 Oct 1994 (v.23#12) pg. 10

When and how to use fill flash with a manual camera (or automated cameras without the fill flash mode). Technique for use either with or without a flash meter is described.
SHUTTERBUG #289 Oct 1994 (v.23#12) pg. 12

Balancing a flash with ambient light when shooting indoors.
SHUTTERBUG #289 Oct 1994 (v.23#12) pg. 14

Two flash lighting equipment kits developed for photojournalists. (1) Battery-powered kit. (2) AC-powered kit.
SHUTTERBUG #289 Oct 1994 (v.23#12) pg. 66

SPECIAL ISSUE on lighting techniques and products. Articles include (1) Natural studio light (tips for recreating outdoor reflections), (2) small product lighting, (3) fill flash basics, (4) simple studio lighting for b&w portraits, (5) science (temperature/color) of lighting, (6) mixing tungsten and flash lighting, (7) finding and using PF60 flash bulbs, and several articles on commercially available lighting equipment.
SHUTTERBUG #302 Nov 1995 (v.25#1) pg. 36, 44, 46, 48, 50, 70, 82

Colorful lighting. Special effects with flash filters. Tips on photographing familiar objects using various colors of light.
SHUTTERBUG #314 Nov 1996 (v.26#1) pg. 54

Creative control. Flash accessories for outdoor use and tips on their use.
SHUTTERBUG #323 Aug 1997 (v.26#10) pg. 42

Exposure control. Tips on using automatic fill-in flash to improve pictures.
SHUTTERBUG #326 Nov 1997 (v.27#1) pg. 30

Necessary evil. How to get the most from on-camera flashes.
SHUTTERBUG #326 Nov 1997 (v.27#1) pg. 84

A studio in your camera bag. Using small portable flash units for greater lighting flexibility.
SHUTTERBUG #338 Nov 1998 (v.28#1) pg. 52

Build a redeye reduction light. Press a button on this camera-mounted penlight to rapidly flicker a high-intensity lamp just before taking a flash photo.
SHUTTERBUG #350 Nov 1999 (v.29#1) pg. 34

Using fill flash to improve outdoor pictures make in bright sunlight.
SHUTTERBUG #362 Nov 2000 (v.30#1) pg. 34

Hot lights are cool. How to mix tungsten and flash lighting for great results.
SHUTTERBUG #362 Nov 2000 (v.30#1) pg. 156

Photography ABCs. Flash photography. Part 1.
SHUTTERBUG #366 Mar 2001 (v.30#5) pg. 132

Photography ABCs. Flash photography with basic gear.
SHUTTERBUG #368 May 2001 (v.30#7) pg. 100

Comprehensive guide to buying an accessory flash for a 35mm SLR camera.
SHUTTERBUG #385 Oct 2002 (v.31#12) pg. 90